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Text input

Text inputs enable the user to interact with and input content and data. This component can be used for long and short form entries.


There are instances, sometimes in the same form, where you need users to enter both short and long form content. Allow the size of the text input box to reflect the length of the content you expect the user to enter.

Text inputWhen the expected user input is a single line of text, as opposed to a paragraph.
Text areaWhen the expected user input is more than one sentence.

Live demo



Default values

Where possible, add programmatic assistance. Detect and pre-fill inputs to reduce errors and save time. When the software can’t determine the value that belongs in an input, use type-ahead to make suggestions. Use sentence-case for default values, detected values, and auto-completion text.

Validation and errors

Real time validation helps to streamline the process and keep data clean when the user is filling out forms. For full guidelines, refer to the forms usage page.

Validation text example

Character count

Text fields and text areas may have a character limit and counter. Use the character limit and counter to let users know how long their entry can be before they begin typing.

While useful for data collection, character count is not an intuitive way to communicate content length to users. Character count allows a user to understand an input error if they surpass the character limit.

An example of a text area.



Effective form labeling helps users understand what information to enter into a text input. Using placeholder text in lieu of a label is sometimes employed as a space-saving method. However, this is not recommended because it hides context and presents accessibility issues.

An example of a text input.

Accessibility best practices for labels

  • Labels must be visible when an input gets focus.
  • Labels must be announced to the screen reader on focus.
  • Ensure the helper text that appears under an input is read when an assistive technology user stops at an input using ARIA.

Placeholder text

Placeholder text provides hints or examples of what to enter. Placeholder text disappears after the user begins entering data into the input and should not contain crucial information. Use sentence-style capitalization, and in most cases, write the text as a direct statement without punctuation.

Placeholder text example

Helper text

Helper text is pertinent information that assists the user in completing a field. Helper text is always available when the input is focused and appears underneath the label. Use sentence-style capitalization, and in most cases, write the text as full sentences with punctuation.

Helper text example


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